Educators educating Educators

Jul 21

Effective Teaching Principles



PDE


10 Effective Teaching Principles

These 10 principles are empirically supported as effective teaching principles and have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.

Pennsylvania Department of Education

Pattan, King of Prussia, PA  October 27, 2009

Ellis, E.S., Worthington, L.A. & Larkin, M.J. (January 13, 1994). Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educator, Technical Report. Effective Teaching Principles.

 

__________________

1. Engagement Time

Students learn more when they are actively engaged in instructional tasks.

Selected strategies:

~Think-write-pair-discuss

~Choral responding

~Response cards (yes, no, why)

~Reciprocal teaching

__________________

2. Success Rate

Students experience high and moderate success rates, which are correlated positively with student learning outcomes.

Selected strategies:

~Feedback ~Pacing

~Skill sequencing

__________________

3. Content Coverage/Opportunities to Learn

Increased opportunity to learn content is correlated positively with increased student achievement.

Selected strategies:

~Identifying essential content

~ Beginning and ending lessons on time

~Reducing transition time

__________________

4. Grouping for Instruction

Students achieve more in classes where they spend most of their time being directly taught by a teacher. The manner in which teachers deliver instruction (i.e., in large/small groups or individually) is an important instructional principle that directly impacts student achievement.

Classroom instruction should include:

~Whole Group Instruction

~Individual Instruction

~ Small Group Instruction

~ Flexible Grouping

__________________

5. Scaffolded Instruction

Students become independent, self-regulated learners through instruction that is deliberately and carefully scaffolded. Teachers provide support and structure, then systematically remove guidance and increase student competence.

Selected strategies:

~ Guided Notes

~Graphic Organizers

~ Verbal Prompting

~Physical Prompting

__________________

6. Addressing Forms of Knowledge

The critical forms of knowledge must be addressed in order for students to become independent, self-regulated learners.

They include:

~ Declarative – factual information

~ Procedural – how to use the knowledge in specific ways

~ Conditional ~ knowing when and where to apply the knowledge

__________________

7. Activating and Organizing Knowledge

Learning is increased when teaching is presented in a manner that assists students in organizing, storing, and retrieving information.

Selected strategies:

~ Graphic/Content Organizers

~ Mnemonics

__________________

8. Teaching Strategically

Strategic instruction is designed to teach students how to apply techniques, principles, or rules in order to solve problems and complete tasks successfully and independently and will help students to become more independent, self-regulated learners.

Selected strategies:

~ Ten-Two

~ Physical Prompting

~ Card Sort

~ KWL Chart

~ Graphic Organizers

~ Mnemonics

__________________

9. Making Instruction Explicit

Explicit instruction includes:

~ Controlled Instruction and Practice

~ Independent Practice

~ Demonstrate/Model

~ Instructional Level match

~ Guided Practice

~ Opportunities for maintenance and generalization

__________________

10. Teaching Sameness in the Curriculum

Teaching sameness is linking a single concept with main ideas and providing students with numerous examples to promote generalizations. By teaching sameness both within and across subjects, teachers promote the ability of students to access knowledge in any problem-solving situation.

Selected strategies:

~ Thematic units across subject areas

~ Scavenger hunts

~ Teach to generalization and/or transfer

~ Inspiration software-concept webs, graphic organizers




News

In case you get bored with the lazy days of summer and want to get a jump preparing for the coming school year, I added to Stuff4Educators a section called How to Study Better based on research from Harvard Medical School that highlights four science-backed ways towards better learning (Hint: drop the highlighter). Additionally, I posted a YouTube video under exercise from the Dana Foundation that won the Northwest Emmy award called Exercise and the Brain that explores the benefits of exercise on the brain and learning. Finally, some books that I have read this past year and found to be stimulating are listed.