Educators educating Educators

May 28

High Impact Strategies


9 High Impact Strategies

Nine high leverage strategies were identified through comprehensive meat-analyses. They are arranged by effect size.

Pennsylvania Department of Education

Pattan, King of Prussia, PA October 27, 2009

Ellis, E.S., Worthington, L.A. & Larkin, M.J. (January 13, 1994). Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educator, Technical Report. Effective Teaching Principles.

1. Identify Similarities and Differences

Identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding and ability to use knowledge. Teachers should design classrooms and homework tasks and opportunities that include:

~ Comparing & contrasting

~ Metaphors & analogies

~ Classifying


2. Summarizing & Note taking

Summarizing requires the ability to delete, substitute and keep some information in order to synthesize and distill. It also requires analysis at a deep level and awareness of structures of information. Teachers can promote summarizing and note taking skills by having the student to:

~ Generate verbal summaries

~ Generate written summaries

~ Take notes and revise their notes correcting errors and adding information


3. Reinforce Effort and Providing Recognition

Increased opportunities to learn content is correlated positively with increased student achievement.

~ Identifying essential content

~ Reducing transition time

~ Beginning & ending lessons on time


4. Homework & Practice

Mastery of skill requires focused practice during which students adapt and share their learning and should result in extending and refining knowledge. Homework and practice provide opportunities to deepen understanding and skills relative to identified content. Teacher:

~ Provide specific feedback on all assigned homework

~ Assign homework for the purpose of students practicing skills and procedures


5. Nonlinguistic Presentations

Two methods are used to store information – semantic and imagery; nonlinguistic presentations represent the imagery mode. In class, teachers may ask students to represent content by:

~ Generating mental images

~ Drawing pictures or pictographs

~ Constructing graphic organizers

~ Making physical models of the content

~ Making revisions to their mental images, pictures, pictographs, graphic organizers and physical models


6. Cooperative Learning

Students are grouped based on a variety of criteria and may be informal (pair - share), formal (task specific), or time-based (created to provide support throughout semester or academic year). (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). Teacher may choose to use the following criteria to organize students in cooperative groups:

~ Interest

~ Ability

~ Demographics


7. Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback

Setting objectives establishes directions for learning and student benefit when they personalize goals set by teachers. Teachers should:

~ Set specific learning goals at the beginning of the unit

~ Have students set their own goals at the beginning of the unit and

~ Have students keep track of their progress towards the learning goal and assess themselves at the end of the unit

According to Hattie (1992), feedback is a most powerful modification to instruction that enhances achievement. Feedback should be:

~ Formative – provided throughout the unit

~ Summative – provide feedback at the end of the unit


8. Generating & testing Hypotheses

Generating and testing hypotheses involves the application of knowledge through inductive and/or deductive thinking. Students must be explicitly taught how to generate, test and explain hypotheses. Teachers engage students in projects that involve students in projects that generate and test hypotheses through tasks that involve:

~ Problem solving decision making

~ Investigations

~ Experimental inquiry

~ System analysis

~ Invention


9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Cues, questions, and advance organizers assist students to retrieve what they already know about a topic. Prior to presenting new content, teachers can:

~ Ask questions that help students recall what they already know about the content

~ Provide students with direct links with what they have studied previously

~ Provide ways for students to organize to think about content



Read April's Ed Tip to understand how using video game design principles will improve instruction.  Moreover, educators should not view video games as the enemy of education, but rather a model for best teaching practices. When educators design instructional strategies, they must keep in mind the principles of video games, namely achievable challenge, and the role of dopamine in education.