Differentiated Instruction
“How has the world of the child changed in the last 150 years? … the answer is, ‘It’s hard to imagine any way in which it hasn’t changed…they’re immersed in all kinds of stuff that was unheard of 150 years ago, yet if you look at schools today versus 100 years ago, they are more similar than dissimilar.”
Peter Senge, director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management
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We must continue to change CLASSROOMS to meet the needs of students, rather than change STUDENTS to meet the needs of our classrooms.
Schools are required to accommodate students, not accommodate who they would like them to be.
Teachers are required to teach all students, not just the easy ones.
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Pattan Leadership conference
Bedford Springs, PA
July 2009
Teri Duckett & Marlene Schechter
Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network
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Topic 1: Differentiated instruction Principles & Practices
Since not all students are alike, differentiated instruction provides an approach to teaching and learning that ensures students have multiple options for taking in information and making sense of ideas
The model of differentiated instruction requires educators to be flexible in their approach to teaching and adjusting the presentation of information to learners rather than expecting students to modify themselves for the presentation classroom teaching is a blend of wholeclass, group, and individual instruction
The Standards Aligned System (http://www.pdesas.org/)is the foundation for content that is to be effectively taught and learned
AND
A direct relationship is made to academic standards, anchors and curriculum frameworks, with the use of various strategies for students to learn grade level content
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Topic 2: Differentiation
Is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation?
Respectful tasks or Flexible grouping or Continual assessment
Teachers can differentiate through ...
Content or Process or Product or Environment
According to Students’ ...
Readiness or Interest or Learning profile
Using a range of strategies such as:
Authentic assessment, Cooperative learning, Multiple intelligences, Jigsaw, Graphic organizers, Tiered assignments, Learning centers
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Topic 3: Differentiated Instruction
Determine how a teacher could accomplish differentiation for the following:
Content? Process? Product? Environment?
_____ Seating arrangement
_____ Work ahead independently on some projects
_____ Graphic organizer
_____ Travel brochure project
_____ Draw a picture of the vocabulary word meaning
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Topic 4: Tiered activities to Alter the Depth of a Lesson
Subject area: _____ Grade level: _______
Topic: ____ Pre assessment ___________
_____________________________________________________________

Basic 
Proficient 
Advance 
__________________________ Standard addressed/Outcome __________________________ 



Assessment __________________________ 



Instruction/Learning activity ________________________ 



Resources __________________________ 



Home Learning _________________________ 



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Topic 5: Selfanalysis Teaching Style
Am I ready to implement differentiation strategies into my classroom?
Y = I do this; N = Improvement needed
1. Y ____ N ____ I know each student
2. Y ____ N ____ I know PA standards
3. Y ____ N ____ Teach with both knowledge and passion
4. Y ____ N ____ Provide datadriven assessment
5. Y ____ N ____ Give students more control over their learning
6. Y ____ N ____ Design meaningful assignments
7. Y ____ N ____ Establish flexible grouping to maximize engagement
8. Y ____ N ____ Provide choices
9. Y ____ N ____ Reteach to “zap gaps
10. Y ____ N ____ Provide enrichment & enhancement
11. Y ____ N ____ Create the optimal learning environment
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Topic 6: Differentiated Instruction: Principles & Practice: The Research
Meta analyses research combined the results from numerous studies to determine the average effect of a given technique
Classroom Instruction that Works (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001, ASCD) identifies those instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement
Meta analyses results on of nine strategies on learning

Strategy #1: Setting objectives & providing feedback, Effect size = .61, Percentile gain = 23

Strategy # 2: Questions, cues, & advance organizers, Effect size = .59, Percentile gain = 22

Strategy #3: Nonlinguistic representations, Effect size = .75, Percentile gain = 27

Strategy # 4: Summarizing & note taking, Effect size = 1.00, Percentile gain = 34

Strategy # 5: Identifying similarities & differences, Effect size = 1.61, Percentile gain = 45

Strategy #6: Generating & testing hypothesis, Effect size = .61, Percentile gain = 23

Strategy #7: Cooperative learning, Effect size = .73, Percentile gain = 27

Strategy #8: Homework & practice, Effect size = .77, Percentile gain = 28

Strategy #9: Reinforcing effort & providing recognition, Effect size = .80, Percentile gain = 29
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Topic 7: Targets
A. What knowledge will the student be learning?

Setting objectives & providing feedback: Strategy #1
B. What will be done to help students acquire & integrate knowledge?

Questions, cues, & advance organizers: Strategy #2

Using nonlinguistic representation: Strategy # 3

Summarizing & notetaking: Strategy # 4
C. What will be done to help students practice, review, and apply knowledge?

Identify similarities & differences: Strategy # 5

Generating & testing hypothesis: Strategy # 6
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Topic 8: Strategy #1: Setting objectives & providing feedback
The research base suggests best practice …

Objectives are posted for students (kid friendly); narrow focus

Use of essential questions

Front loading a lesson provides a 28% gain in knowledge

Feedback must be effective, timely, specific, and the student’s own
The research suggests that students desire …

Rapid response on tests & quizzes

Immediate feedback

An example of an excellent answer

The ability to make revisions on their own work
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Topic 9: Strategy #2: Questions, cues, and advance organizers

Questions, cues, and advance organizers let students know what they are about to learn

Advance organizers help students find patterns & make important connections in the learning

Higher level questions produce deeper learning then ‘lower level” questions

Waiting briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the dept of student’s answers
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Topic 10: Strategy #3: Nonlinguistic representations
Nonlinguistic representations help students acquire & integrate knowledge in various forms:

Graphic organizers

Pictographs

Mental images

Physical representations

Kinesthetic representations
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Topic 11: Strategy #4: Summarizing & note taking
Explicitly teach summarizing & note taking
Summarizing

Analyze & synthesize information

Identify key concepts

Recognize extraneous information
Note taking
Use notes to document learning

2column notes

Bulleted notes

Mapping notes
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Topic 12: Strategy #5: Identifying similarities & differences
The thought processes found in identifying similarities and differences are fond to be basic to human thought
Learning is dependent on prior learning; therefore, it is humanly basic to ask, “How is this different from what I already know?”
Effective tolls include:

Venn diagram

Comparison matrix

Concept maps

Metaphors & analogies

Graphic organizers

T charts

Pro/Con grids
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Topic 13: Strategy #6: Generating & testing hypothesis
Requires students to reason inductively & deductively …
Inductive: Facts then generalization
Deductive: Generalization then facts

Problem solving

System analysis

Decisionmaking

Historical investigation

Invention
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Topic 14: Strategy #7: Cooperative learning

Cooperative learning is a powerful researchbased strategy that effectively engages students in learning

Groups work best if they are not merely grouped by ability (23%)

Students put into groups of two show a 6% gain in knowledge; when put into groups of three to four, there is a 9% gain; groups of five to seven show a loss (1%)
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Topic 15: Strategy #8: Homework & Practice
Research suggests:

Homework should be used as a from of practice designed for application of knowledge

Homework for young children should be assigned for the purpose of developing study habits and involving parental support

Students need to understand the purpose of homework & how it is related to knowledge, they are learning

Without practice, little longterm learning occurs (24 times of exposure & practice for learning)
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Topic 16: Strategy #9: Reinforcing effort & providing recognition
Research suggests:

Not all students realize the important of believing in effort, but can change their belief

Teachers need to help students see the relationship between effort and achievement

Recognition is a motivating factor that propels students to greater effort

Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance
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Topic 17: Helpful websites
http://openc.k12.or.us/reaching/tag/dcsamples.html
http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstructudl.html
http://www.learnerslink.com/curriculum.htm
http://www.uhseport.net/published/k/sh/kshaw/collection/1/
http://ethemes.missouri.edu/themes/1302
http://www.differentiatedresources.com/
http://www.uhseport.net/published/k/sh/kshaw/collection/1/
http://performancepyramid.muohio.edu/DifferentiatedInstruction/SampleLessonPlans.html
http://webster.frsd.k12.nj.us/rfmslibrarylab/di/differentiated_instruction.htm
http://artsedge.kennedycenter.org/educators.aspx